Wednesday, 13 March 2019

A team of researchers at Oxford University has achieved speeds of 100 gigabits per second and faster with a system based on Li-Fi.

The team, which includes researchers from 
University College London achieved
this with so-called holographic light control at both the sender and the receiver. The receiver has a diameter of only 8 to 9 micrometers.
The researchers used liquid crystals to create a programmable diffraction grating that reflects light in the right direction. The device is similar to that used in projectors.
It is important here that receivers with a wide field of view are used to make the alignment easier, especially because the device uses wavelength multiplexing, which splits the signal slightly into different colours. Just as with a prism, the wavelengths are bent through the diffraction grating. With a field of vision of 60 degrees, the team was able to send six different wavelengths, each with 37.4 Gbps, for a total bandwidth of 224 Gbps. With a field of view of 36 degrees, they achieved only three wavelengths, for 112 Gbps. Li-Fi usually refer to communication via visible light, this system is based on infrared light at 1550 nm, used in telecommunications. The system requires a direct line of sight and the receiver must have a fixed position.  LiFi is much faster than WiFi
LiFi-based system sends data with 100GbpsLi-Fi is essentially similar to Wi-Fi but uses light instead of radio waves. 
In homes and buildings, Wi-Fi devices such as smartphones, laptops and 
game consoles can connect to the internet wirelessly up to about 20 meters. 
Wi-Fi currently uses the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz band. Speeds of up to 1Gbps 
can be achieved in the 5GHz band. With the new 60 GHz band this is a 
maximum of 7Gbps.
The expectation is that Li-Fi can achieve at least 15Gbps, and possibly much 
more. Various companies have already achieved speeds of more than 10Gbps 
with Li-Fi by using 3 different color LEDs. However, unlike Wi-Fi, signals do not 
penetrate walls, but signals are received wherever the light reaches. Visible light 
does not cause disruptions in equipment, as is the case with Wi-Fi. This allows it 
to be used, for example, in hospitals and airplanes where equipment with radio 
waves is undesirable.
Li-Fi uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) for both sending and receiving data. By 
switching the LED on and off very quickly, series of ones and zeros are sent. 
If the LED is on, a 1 is sent and if the LED goes out a 0. The technology that Li-Fi 
uses is also called visible light communication (VLC).
Within a few years, every lamp in the house will be an LED lamp. 
This means that all devices, from a laptop and microwave to a refrigerator, 
can be connected to the internet in every room. Just as mobile phones have 
changed from simple communication devices to smartphones, so can the lights 
in the house from just giving light to a smart lighting system that connects all 
devices in the house wirelessly to the internet. Li-Fi may therefore lead to the 
internet of things (IoT).

NASA's OPALS announced a breakthrough in space-to-ground communication December 9, 2014, uploading 175 megabytes in 3.5 seconds. Their system is also able to re-acquire tracking after the signal was lost due to cloud cover.

NASA's OPALS 
In the early morning hours of Oct. 18, 2013 NASA’s Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration made history, transmitting data from lunar orbit to Earth at a rate of 622 Megabits-per-second (Mbps). LLCD was flown aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer satellite known as LADEE, whose primary science mission was to investigate the tenuous and exotic atmosphere that exists around the moon.
In January 2013, NASA used lasers to beam an image of the Mona Lisa to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter roughly 390,000 km (240,000 mi) away. To compensate for atmospheric interference, an error correction code algorithm similar to that used in CDs was implemented.[24]
A two-way distance record for communication was set by the Mercury laser altimeter instrument aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft and was able to communicate across a distance of 24 million km (15 million miles), as the craft neared Earth on a fly-by in May 2005. The previous record had been set with a one-way detection of laser light from Earth, by the Galileo probe, of 6 million km in 1992. Quote from Laser Communication in Space Demonstrations (EDRS)

Commercial use

Various planned satellite constellations such as SpaceX's Starlink intended to provide global broadband coverage employ laser communication for inter-satellite links between the several hundred to thousand satellites effectively creating a space-based optical mesh network.

Sunday, 17 February 2019

6GHz WiFi doubles available spectrum

That's the billion-dollar question as the FCC prepares to take next steps towards possibly doubling the amount of spectrum available to Wi-Fi. One thing is certain: 6 GHz is likely the biggest business opportunity the Wi-Fi industry has ever seen and one of the biggest in wireless history but there is a Quiet storm emerging. 


A Quiet Controversy

The push for 5G networks to go live highlights the astounding amount of disregard that corporate interest can have for the wellbeing of people and the planet. Though for years now, scientific studies and research have increasingly shown that exposure to EMF radiation has a long list of harmful health effects, telecom companies and the FCC (the government agency that is supposed to be looking out for public safety by regulating wireless communication) have not only failed to pay attention; they are now deliberately doing everything they can to minimize findings that cast wireless technology in a negative light.
The ways in which 5G will vastly improve our lives are proclaimed at every opportunity, with not a word mentioned on the possibility of ill effects, or any commitment to making sure the technology is safe. Worse, it is clear that the highest priority of those pushing the 5G technology, is making sure that nothing else can get in the way, while leaving the “regulating” to telecoms. Take it from the chairman of the FCC Tom Wheeler at a July 2016 press conference:
“Rule number one is that the technology should drive the policy rather than the policy drive the technology… Unlike some countries, we do not believe we should spend the next couple of years studying what 5G should be, how it should operate, and how to allocate spectrum based on those assumptions. […] Turning innovators loose is far preferable to expecting committees and regulators to define the future. We won’t wait for the standards to be first developed in the sometimes arduous standards-setting process or in a government-led activity. Instead, we will make ample spectrum available and then rely on a private sector-led process for producing technical standards best suited for those frequencies and use cases.”
This effectively demonstrates the FCC’s perspective on how important 5G is. It mirrors the agency’s quiet efforts to create legislature that blocks local governments from restricting the implementation of 5G (essentially eliminating oversight and taking away the rights of citizens to choose otherwise). This will include streamlining the approval of small cell installation.
Another major shortcoming in ensuring 5G’s safety is that the FCC standards for safe levels of EMF exposure have long been obsolete. For one, the guidelines claim that the main threat posed by EMF radiation to the human body is through the heating of tissues. But it has long been proven that ill-effects can occur at EMF radiation levels well below what it would take to create changes in temperature. The guidelines also focus only on acute exposure, ignoring the possibility that chronic, lower levels of exposure are equally (if not more so) likely to cause harm (and overlooking the fact that the latter more closely reflects how we interact with wireless technology today).
These standards also assume that sources of EMFs like laptops are used at least 8 inches away from our bodies, yet most people have never been told that distance between our bodies and our devices is important; who do you know that doesn’t keep their phone in their pocket? See more on how the FCC guidelines miss the mark here.

Possible Health Risks of 5G

Scientists around the world are working to warn others of the risk associated with EMFs at the levels 5G would create, and are appealing to government officials to use their power to block the corporate-favoring legislation mentioned above.
This letter, written by a biochemistry professor and internationally known scientist on the subject of EMF health effects (Dr. Martin Pall), discusses the dangers of 5G; some key excerpts are listed below:
“EMFs act by activating channels in the membrane that surrounds each of our cells, called voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). The EMFs put forces on the voltage sensor that controls the VGCCs of about 7.2 million times greater than the forces on other charged groups in our cells. This is why weak EMFs have such large biological effects on the cells of our bodies.
Pulsed EMFs are, in most cases, more biologically active and therefore more dangerous than are non-pulsed (continuous wave) EMFs. All cordless communication devices communicate via pulsations, because it is the pulsations that carry the information communicated.
5G will be much more active in activating the VGCCs and producing health impacts because of its rapid absorption by materials in the body, because of its very rapid pulsations and because of the huge number antennae they are planning to put up, at least 200 times the number of antennae from all current cell phone towers. What this means is that the impacts on the outer one to two inches of our bodies will be massive.”
Among the major ill-effects we will likely see some time after the introduction of 5G, according to Dr. Pall, include increases in blindness, hearing loss, male infertility, skin cancers, thyroid issues, and nervous system dysfunction.
Another letter, this one signed by over 180 doctors and scientists and written last year, urged the European Union to take some key actions, including:
  1. Temporarily halting the rollout of 5G networks until they can be properly tested and ensured safe for humans (especially more vulnerable demographics, like children) and the environment.
  2. Informing people of the health risks associated with wireless communication and promoting safer use.
  3. Creating an independent, unbiased agency of EMF scientists to draw up new standards for EMF exposure and monitor/study the effects of EMR as time goes on.
  4. Keeping the wireless industry from lobbying for/influencing/regulating the expansion of wireless technology.
  5. Switching to favour wired digital communication over wireless.
The fact that all of these guidelines aren’t already in place shows the situation we are blindly walking into on a global scale. The idea that experts in the field are so troubled about the threat 5G poses while telecoms and the FCC are only concerned with getting the technology out as fast as possible does not bode well for the future health of our species and planet.
If dozens of studies have already demonstrated that there is a link between EMF exposure (at the levels emitted by 4G networks) and negative health outcomes, what sort of effects will we see once we are immersed in much higher frequencies, coming from countless, nearby sources at all hours of the day?

https://www.defendershield.com/5g-technology-safe-emf-radiation-emissions

These are five of the many other issues:
★ The 6 GHz road ahead is being mapped out
★ The impact of 6 GHz on home & enterprise Wi-Fi
★ New use cases & business opportunities
★ Global perspectives on affordable connectivity
★ New spectrum rules & their impact


Wednesday, 13 February 2019

5G means different things

A much-hyped network upgrade is ready for use is called "5G". To industry proponents, it's the next huge innovation in wireless internet. To the U.S. government, it's the backbone technology of a future that America will wrestle with China to control. To many average people, it's simply a mystery. The technology is one of the issues expected to take center stage at the MWC mobile conference in Barcelona, Spain, this month. The interest goes well beyond engineers: In Washington, there are fears that China could take the lead in developing the technology and sell equipment that could be used to spy on Americans. What, exactly, is 5G wireless — and will you even notice when it comes online?

WHAT IS 5G?

5G is a new technical standard for wireless networks — the fifth, naturally — that promises faster speeds; less lag, or "latency," when connecting to the network; and the ability to connect many devices to the internet without bogging it down. 5G networks will ideally be better able to handle more users, lots of sensors and heavy traffic. Before we can all use it, wireless companies and phone makers have to upgrade. Phones need new chips and radio antennas. The phone you have today won't work with a 5G network. Wireless companies have been getting ready. They've been revamping their network equipment, buying up chunks of radio spectrum for carrying 5G signals, and installing new 5G antennas on cellphone towers, utility poles and streetlights. Wireless providers will invest $275 billion in 5G-related networks in the U.S., according to CTIA, an industry trade group.

WHEN WILL IT BE AVAILABLE?
A true U.S. mobile rollout will start in 2019. It will take a few years to go national, and even then more rural areas of the country will not be covered in the "millimeter wave" frequencies that promise the highest data speeds and capacities, said Michael Thelander, CEO of wireless consultancy Signals Research Group. Thelander predicts that China may lag the U.S. by a year in its initial rollout, but will ultimately have the biggest deployment, while European countries will build out more slowly.

Beware of confusion, though. Wireless carriers have a history of rushing to slap the latest-and-greatest label on their networks, and this time is no different. AT&T has already applied the name 5G on a service that's not really 5G. (Sprint, upset, then sued its larger rival.) Once the network is ready, you'll need a 5G-enabled phone to connect to it. The first ones should be available in the first half of 2019, but a 5G iPhone isn't expected until 2020. 5G phones will most likely be more expensive than current 4G phones. Don't worry, even when 5G turns on, you can keep using 4G phones, just not at 5G speeds.

WHAT CAN 5G DO?

There's a considerable amount of hype over the promise of 5G. Industry groups say it will promote smart cities by connecting sensor networks that could manage traffic and quickly identify streetlight outages. 5G could connect self-driving cars and fuel new applications in virtual and augmented reality. Its high-speed connections could enable better remote surgery and other telemedicine, help companies automate their factories and offer businesses dedicated high-speed internet lanes. "5G speeds, and ever-faster home broadband, will mean that existing applications will get richer, and also that new applications will emerge — new Flickrs, YouTubes or Snapchats. We don't know what yet," Benedict Evans, a partner at Silicon Valley venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, wrote in a January blog post . The most immediate impact on consumers will be faster download speeds for movies and other video. Thelander says your phone's internet will work better in crowded locations such as stadiums.

WHAT ARE THE SECURITY CONCERNS?

The 5G network is one front in rising tensions between the U.S. and China. The U.S. government has warned U.S. companies not to use Chinese telecom technology in communications networks due to security concerns, and is pressing other countries to ban Huawei, a Chinese telecom company, from 5G network buildouts. U.S. officials have suspected for years that the Chinese government could use Huawei network equipment to help it spy. Huawei has rejected such accusations.

Tuesday, 12 February 2019

AT&T’s current 5G network uses 39 GHz while T-Mobile is leaning on having greater range with low-band 600 MHz spectrum.

AT&T has added Minneapolis and Chicago to its roster of 21 cities where the carrier plans to deploy 5G service this year.
5G will come to parts of the cities in the coming months, joining previously announced Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Nashville, Orlando, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose.
AT&T launched its commercial 5G network in limited urban areas of 12 cities late last year.
The announcement comes as part of an update roughly 50 days after AT&T launched its millimeter wave 5G network and began trialling service (dubbed 5G+) and a 5G-capable Netgear mobile hotspot with select customers. The carrier said it has been making incremental network and device improvements that resulted in early customers experiencing speeds between 200 – 300 Mbps, with some hitting 400 Mbps (though AT&T noted that figure does not represent average speeds which may be lower).
 “Now that we’ve had a few weeks to let the network breathe and look at real-world results, I’m very encouraged by what we’re seeing.” Jeff McElfresh, President, AT&T Technology Operations, in a statement.  “We can’t wait to drive forward and bring 5G+ to even more consumers and businesses in the coming months.”
AT&T said lessons learned from its commercial 5G network have given the carrier a head start compared to competitors and reiterated that the company is on track to deliver a nationwide 5G network using sub-6 GHz spectrum in early 2020 (AT&T’s current 5G network uses 39 GHz millimeter wave spectrum). Rival T-Mobile has also committed to deploying a nationwide network in 2020, leaning on low-band 600 MHz spectrum.
5G-capable smartphones supporting mmWave bands are expected to launch in the first half of this year, followed by sub-6 GHz capable devices later in 2019.
Separately, AT&T this week announced field tests on the operator’s live 5G network that hit download speeds of 1.53 Gbps. A spokesperson said the test was conducted on a live 5G radio deployed in one of AT&T’s 5G launch cities, but declined to specify which one.
The test used a mobile form factor test device from Qualcomm and an Ericsson 5G NR radio. A release noted the trial was testing a software update. The AT&T spokesperson said trials in interoperability testing environments (IoT) with technology partners (both network and silicon providers) using 400 MHz of spectrum recently occurred, enabling the carrier to upgrade the network and use a test device with the latest software to achieve the faster speeds. The software release is based on 3GPP Release 15 September specs.
As AT&T pushes ahead with 5G efforts, the carrier has come under fire from rivals and media alike over-marketing its LTE-Advanced network as ‘5G Evolution’ – including updating connectivity icons on smartphones to show ‘5GE’.
In the most recent development, Sprint last week filed a lawsuit in federal court seeking to bar AT&T from using the marketing label, alleging it amounted to deception, false advertising and an attempt to secure an unfair advantage in the 5G race.
AT&T plans to fight the lawsuit and has defended its use of the label, saying the company clearly defined ‘5GE’ “as an evolutionary step to standards-based 5G.”

Friday, 8 February 2019

5G and the global race to long term wireless leadership

With carriers investing heavily and 5G network deployments underway, the U.S. will win the global 5G race, at least in the short-term, according to advisory firm ABI Research. However, to secure the nation’s long-term wireless leadership, industry group CTIA is stressing the need for access to additional mid-band spectrum. ABI’s latest research cites early investments on 5G-related spectrums, deployments and tests in the past years, coupled with the size of the U.S. market and the customer’s high willingness to pay, together as providing “a unique environment to U.S.-based firms to flourish.” The U.S. also has a stronghold because of carriers’ fiscal position, with the firm forecasting mobile service providers will spend about $40 billion on network infrastructure alone during 2019. Early respective 5G launches from Verizon and AT&T are using high-band millimeter wave spectrum, which can handle very high data speeds and capacity but limited propagation characteristics mean signals are unable to travel long distances. T-Mobile is focusing on nationwide coverage in 2020 using low-band spectrum that provides better coverage but more constrained capacity and speed. Sprint, meanwhile, is rolling out 2.5 GHz and focused on upgradable Massive MIMO technology. In a Tuesday post, CTIA emphasized that a mix of high-, mid-, and low-band spectrum will be needed for next-gen 5G networks, as mid-band spectrum between 3 and 24 GHz provides a blend that can still deliver high capacity but across larger areas. Economic Impact A report released Tuesday from the Analysis Group found freeing up mid-band spectrum for 5G would help boost the country's economy. Specifically, if 400 MHz of mid-band spectrum was made available, building and deploying would add $247 billion to the U.S. economy and create over 1.3 million new jobs over a seven year span. The firm found wireless providers would invest more than $150 billion to build infrastructure to deliver 5G services over mid-band spectrum. “Newly allocated mid-band spectrum will complement the spectrum wireless providers are currently using, allowing the blend of coverage and capacity necessary to bring revolutionary 5G services to the U.S.,” said David Sosa, Principal at Analysis Group. “The investment required to build out 5G networks to use this spectrum will generate substantial economic benefits in the form of higher GDP and job creation in communities large and small.” A separate review of 13 countries from Analysys Mason found that the U.S. is trailing other countries in access to mid-band spectrum. By 2020, China has plans to release more than seven times more mid-band spectrum than the U.S., while Japan plans to make 10 times more mid-band available. South Korea, the U.K., Australia, Italy and Spain are also ahead of the U.S., according to Analysys Mason. Indeed, ABI Research noted long-term 5G leadership isn’t guaranteed, as other countries have massive deployments planned. “The long-term outcome of the 5G race is still uncertain. Even Chinese investments and spectrum allocations are late, the scale of the upcoming 5G deployments is simply unprecedented,” says Emanuel Kolta, Research Analyst at ABI Research. CTIA says there is good news—pointing to the 3.5 CBRS band, which FCC finalized auction rules for last year to open up 70 MHz of licensed spectrum. The agency is also considering repurposing up to 500 MHz in the 3.7-4.2 GHz band and NTIA is considering how the 3.45 GHz band can be utilized for 5G, the group noted. The reports came as industry group leaders testified before the U.S. Senate at a hearing Wednesday on 5G, titled “Winning the Race to 5G and the Next Era of Technology Innovation in the United States.” CTIA says it’s time to act, and Congress can help—citing last year’s bipartisan AIRWAVES Act that laid out timelines for freeing up additional spectrum. “AIRWAVES remedies the mid-band deficit by providing access to the same spectrum bands that are being made available throughout Asia and Europe, CTIA CEO Meredith Attwell Baker said. “By matching up our mid-band spectrum with global bands, we unlock economies of scale and reduce the costs—and time— to deploy.” Rural Communities In the quest for 5G leadership, rural America should not be left behind, CTIA underscored, noting the AIRWAVES Act would set aside 10 percent of proceeds from new spectrum auctions for wireless network buildouts in rural communities. The group says additional $6 billion would have been available for rural wireless builds had this stipulation been in place during the AWS-3 and Broadcast Incentive Auctions.   Steven Berry, president and CEO of Competitive Carriers Association, testifying before the Senate Commerce Committee today echoed the need to prioritize expanding wireless broadband services in underserved areas of the country and freeing up additional spectrum. “Ensuring consumers in rural areas have access to 5G service is not inevitable, and policymakers’ decisions on advanced technologies is critical – not only in the global ‘race to 5G,’ but also, and more importantly, for the economic, educational, health and social benefit of American consumers,” Berry said. “Rural areas are at a significant crossroads, and decisions made by Congress on a few key issues can ‘make or break’ efforts to close the digital divide.” “Berry continued, “First, we must have reliable data to determine where broadband coverage exists and where it does not. Without accurate data, unserved and underserved areas risk being left behind, and the digital divide will become even wider – a result that no one wants. With better data at the ready, Congress should reinvigorate USF policies, ensure all carriers have access to low-, mid-, and high-band spectrum, streamline infrastructure deployment policies and define a clear pathway for enhanced security.”

Tuesday, 5 February 2019

LiFi finally moves into mobile smartphone handsets

A Wireless communications firm is finally targeting the consumer market as it gets ready to unveil new technology that allows LiFi connectivity to be integrated into mobile handsets. The Edinburgh-based firm, Pure LiFi, will debut the first consumer smartphone powered by LiFiat Mobile World Congress 2019, a global industry conference held in Barcelona.

It will contain new optical LiFi components allowing, for the first time, smartphone manufacturers to design LiFi into mobile handsets. LiFi uses LEDs (light-emitting diodes) to deliver high-speed wireless connectivity, instead of using radio waves like WiFi.

The company claims the service is “virtually interference free” and “inherently more secure” than radio technology. According to PureLiFi, it can also serve “more users per square metre than any other wireless technology on the market”, making it a key player as smart technology, autonomous vehicles, and virtual and augmented reality services drive up demand for wireless connectivity.
Chief executive Alistair Banham said: “The communications ecosystem is crying out for new spectrum and new wireless technology that will serve the global appetite for more bandwidth and digital innovation. Device manufacturers need new technology to be sure they’re ready for 5G and differentiate between their competition.

“We’ve led global adoption of LiFi into critical use cases such as government and industry and now we’re bringing the technology into every device and every light for everyone.”

The company, formed in 2012 as a spin-out from the University of Edinburgh, has previously conducted 5G trials with O2 Telefonica and collaborated with aerospace and defence company Astronics Corporation to fully explore the use of LiFi in aircraft.


Saturday, 26 January 2019

UK government seeks a secure national telecommunications infrastructure.

The British government has been asked to confirm that national telecommunications infrastructure is secure amid growing concerns about Chinese supplier Huawei. In letters to the secretaries of state for defence, foreign affairs and digital, Norman Lamb, chairman of the Commons Science and Technology Committee, said it was crucial the UK is confident in the security of its telecommunications infrastructure.

Lamb posed a series of questions, including how the government can assure the security of critical infrastructure when it is owned and run by private companies, and how it assesses and manages potential national security risks related to foreign suppliers.

The letters were prompted by nations in the Five Eyes alliance and the European Union appearing increasingly nervous about the possibility that Huawei kit is being co-opted by the Chinese government to pinch national secrets.

Bans have been enacted in the US, Australia and New Zealand, and France is rumoured to be considering one. Meanwhile, Canada arrested Huawei's CFO Meng Wangzhou, who is now facing extradition to the US, and the UK's Oxford university has reportedly scrapped all research grants from Huawei.

Those suspicious of Huawei and its links to the Chinese regime argue that these governments rarely enforce direct bans – but others question the lack of evidence, or even reports of evidence, for the allegations of spying. For its part, Huawei has repeatedly and strenuously denied all such allegations.

One example of such caution came from the president of Germany's cyber-risk assessment agency, who told Der Spiegel in December that there was "currently no reliable evidence" of a risk from Huawei.

However, a group set up in the UK to test the Chinese firm's kit, the Huawei Cyber Security Evaluation Centre, said in July last year that they had identified "shortcomings" in engineering processes that "exposed new risks in the UK telecommunication networks and long-term challenges in mitigation and management".

In December, there were reports that Huawei had agreed to spend $2bn on a security overhaul to address the issue – an investment that more sceptical readers might link to the fact the UK hasn't yet slapped a ban on the company's tech.

Chairman Lamb's questions to the officials – foreign secretary Jeremy Hunt, digital secretary Jeremy Wright and defence secretary Gavin Williamson (all PDFs) – sought to establish the accuracy of the claims around the Chinese firm, and why the UK hasn't followed suit.

"What assessment has the government made of the UK allies' actions regarding foreign involvement in their communications networks, and why has the government not pursued similar actions in the UK?" he asked.

A further question asked what assessment the government has made about whether Chinese legislation could compel Chinese companies in the UK to assist with Chinese national intelligence work. Lamb also asked about the government's response to the HCSEC's report, and whether it would expand this model to other foreign communications product or service suppliers.

A similar letter was sent to the executive director of Huawei in the UK, asking how the firm responds to the bans taken by the Five Eyes nations and whether it could be compelled to assist Chinese authorities.

5G evolution at T-Mobile gets SVP of Technology Transformation

T-Mobile has hired former Ericsson executive Ulf Ewaldsson to head up its 5G evolution strategy as the operator’s new SVP of Technology Transformation.

He will report to T-Mobile CTO and EVP Neville Ray.     Ulf Ewaldsson T-Mobile's new SVP of Technology Transformation Ewaldsson spent nearly three decades at the Swedish telecom equipment giant, most recently as a senior advisor to Ericsson CEO Börje Ekholm.

Ewaldsson previously held leadership roles including SVP and Head of Business Area Digital Services, Chief Strategy & Technology Officer, Head of Group Function Strategy & Technology, and Head of Product Area Radio.

"We are thrilled to share the great news that Ulf is joining our team of amazing leaders at T-Mobile who continue to show the other guys what it takes to win in wireless. Just look at what we’ve done with 4G wireless! We’ve been the fastest for 19 straight quarters – nearly 5 straight years… and we’re just getting started.

Adding Ulf’s passion and track record for driving innovation to the Un-carrier mix is going to take us to the next level,” said Ray in statement. “Ulf has achieved so many firsts and truly supported the evolution of technology for telecommunications across the globe.

Bringing him on board is a total win for T-Mobile and we couldn’t wait to share it! He is going to be the perfect addition to our consumer-first Un-carrier team to drive our 5G evolution strategy!” Ewaldsson also currently serves as member and chairman of several boards, including the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology, ASSA-ABLOY AB, and Telecom Management Forum.

Ewaldsson and his family will relocate to the U.S. from Sweden, joining T-Mobile the last week in January, the company said.  

Universities are concerned about trusting Huawei over 5G research.

Universities in Oxford and elsewhere in Europe are Suspending Research Funding from China's Huawei

Oxford University says it is suspending research grants and funding donations from Huawei amid growing security concerns about the Chinese telecom giant.

It's another setback for Huawei's image in Europe, an important market for the company, which has been effectively blocked in the U.S. over concerns its technology poses a cybersecurity risk.

It's now facing increasing scrutiny in Europe, where it is expected it to play a major role in building new fifth-generation mobile networks. The university decided on Jan. 8th 2019 that "it will not pursue new funding opportunities" with Huawei or related companies, it said in a statement Thursday.

The decision, which applies to both funding of research contracts and philanthropic donations, was made "in the light of growing public concerns raised in recent months" surrounding the company's U.K. partnerships.

Two existing research projects worth a combined £692,000 ($895,000) will continue, it said. "We hope these matters can be resolved shortly and note Huawei's own willingness to reassure governments about its role and activities," the university said.

Huawei said it was "not informed of this decision" and awaits the university's full explanation. Britain's defense secretary and its intelligence chief both voiced concerns last month about Huawei's involvement in the country's rollout of 5G networks. Huawei's troubles are expanding elsewhere in Europe.

The company fired its sales director in Poland last week after authorities there arrested him on charges of spying for China. The Czech Republic has warned against using Huawei equipment because of security fears and Norway is rethinking the company's role in its telecom networks.

Huawei founder, Ren Zhengfei said in a rare interview this week that his company would never share secrets about its customers and their communications networks. Ren's daughter, who is also the company's chief financial officer, is currently fighting a U.S. request that she be extradited from Canada on charges related to Iran sanctions violations

Wednesday, 16 January 2019

Samsung launching 5G smartphones at Barcelona in February.

Meet the 5G Samsung Galaxy S10 X and its monstrous specs!

Samsung is pulling out all the stops for its all-new 5G colossus Samsung will unveil its all-new Galaxy S10 range on February 20, 2019 at simultaneous Galaxy Unpacked events in San Francisco and London.

Thanks to the prominent "10" emblazoned on the invitation, it seems pretty clear we'll see the Samsung Galaxy S10 , Galaxy S10 Plus, and new affordable Galaxy S10 Lite revealed during the keynote presentation next month.

However, the latest whispers suggest we could also see the foldable Galaxy X, a pair of sensor-packed Smart Shoes, as well as a 5G-enabled Galaxy S10 announced, too. The latter has been subject to a new leak which gives us a boatload of new details on the aforementioned 5G-compatible Galaxy S10 handset.

According to sources speaking to the publication, the so-called ultra-flagship model will be branded Galaxy S10 X. Galaxy S10 release date, price, features, 5G, leaks Samsung Galaxy X finally has a release date, and it's sooner than expected The addition of the "X" to the Galaxy S10 name is not only to signal the fact that the Galaxy S10 represents the tenth anniversary of the best-selling Galaxy S smartphone series, but also purportedly feeds into the marketing planned for the handset, which will centre around the buzzwords "eXperience" and "eXpansion".

Those of us who have been closely following the whispers from the supply chain in the run-up to the Galaxy S10 launch event will know that this name seems somewhat problematic. After all, Galaxy X has been heavily rumoured to be the name of the long-awaited foldable flagship phone due to be unveiled during the same keynote as the Galaxy S10 series.

Samsung briefly unveiled the pliable phone during its annual developer conference in San Francisco in November 2018, but neglected to confirm the name of the handset. They have not only revealed the branding of the upcoming Galaxy S10 X, but it has some new details around the specs squeezed inside the ultra-flagship. And it sounds like a beast of a smartphone. The 5G-enabled Galaxy S10 will include the same in-screen ultrasonic fingerprint scanner scheduled for the regular 4G-touting Galaxy S10 and Galaxy S10 Plus, as well as a whopping 1TB of built-in storage, an enormous 5,000mAh battery, and 10GB of RAM or more.

Wow. In addition to serious overkill specs inside the handset, there are claims that the flagship will boast six cameras (a dual-selfie camera on the front, and a quadruple set-up like the Galaxy A9 on the back), 3D depth-sensing for improved images, and a humongous 6.7-inch Super AMOLED Infinity-O style display.

Finally, the 5G-charged Galaxy S10 X will also include exclusive new software capabilities. The next-generation handset will purportedly use AI to attempt to automate some of its users most common software features. This sounds similar to what Google has introduced in its Android 9.0 Pie. However, Samsung is tipped to be pushing the features further using its Bixby talkative assistant.

So, what will the 5G Samsung Galaxy S10 X cost? Prices for the entry-level (non 5G) Galaxy S10 Lite will sit somewhere between £555, or $712 and £625, $801. Meanwhile, sources claim the maxed-out Galaxy S10 could reach as high as £1,250 or $1,603.

However, it's unclear whether this is a reference to the Galaxy S10 Plus, or the 5G-enabled Galaxy S10 X. According to an earlier Samsung Galaxy S10 UK price leak, the top-end smartphone model will reach an eye-watering £1,399 or $1,791. Given that the Galaxy Note 9 currently costs £1,099 or $1,149.99 for the maxed-out model with 512GB of built-in storage, these leaked high prices really don't seem that unrealistic.

5G emerges in Alpha Test mode in UK writes the Wired magazine.

https://www.wired.co.uk/article/what-is-5g-launch-date-mobile-networks-uk?utm_campaign=pc10030&utm_medium=social-network&utm_source=linkedin&hootPostID=a6edaed5c9aa19d15cafd252bfa5991d

Hybrid 5G performance is being analyzed.

5G device to device communication is such a product of progressive thinking, a network that uses both LTE communication scenario in conjugation with Wi-Fi low band communication.

The main idea for conjunction of two different types of network is based on the fact that base stations suffer large amount of traffic and tend to drop data and information in such cases. Apart from these facts another main stream goal is to provide security for such a communication technology.

The future 5G network is based on the transitioning nodes, a set of cluster head communicates with another cluster head using base stations and nodes in between transfer from one cluster head to another.

A Gray hole attack is a situation in which the attacker inserts a malicious node into cluster head and steals information. This paper is based on the performance of 5G networks and the likely effects of gray hole attacks on 5G networks.

Further proposal emerges around Hybrid5G

In this paper, we propose a user centered handoff scheme for hybrid 5G environments. The handoff problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem which maximizes the achievable data receiving rate and minimizes the block probability simultaneously. When a user needs to select a new Base Station (BS) in handoff, the user will calculate the achievable data receiving rate and estimate the block probability for each available BS based on limited local information. By taking the throughput metric into consideration, the formulated multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a maximization problem. We solve the transformed maximization problem to calculate the network selection result in a distributed method. The calculated network selection result is proved to be a Pareto Optimal solution of the original multi-objective optimization problem. The proposed scheme guarantees that based on limited local information, each user can select a new BS with high achievable data receiving rate and low block probability in handoff. Comprehensive experiment has been conducted. It is shown that the proposed scheme promotes the total throughput and ratio of users served significantly. INDEX TERMS 5G mobile communication, Base stations, Optimization, Mobile handsets, Bandwidth, Quality of service, Interference

Tuesday, 15 January 2019

LiFi has a fascinating history which is revealed by Professor Harald Haas who was interviewed in Edinburgh, Scotland.

https://youtu.be/23iUqNwAbZw





Project Loon: The Journey is the reward not just the destination!

https://loon.co/journey/

Earliest tests of Loon started back 8 years ago in 2011, using a weather balloon and basic, off-the-shelf radio parts – the first prototype. The next years were a process of rapid iteration to prove beyond any doubt that the balloon-powered internet just works very well indeed in rural and metro areas around the globe.


Razer Blade 15 Advanced // 4K OLED & 240 HZ!?

4K relevance in our development of Hybrid5G Infrastructure


Hands down the most fabulous 4K high-end Razer Blade 15 Advanced laptop launched in 2019, featuring the new RTX 2060, 2070 MAXQ and 2080 AXQ GPUs, making it an ideal gamer device.

I find any 4K OLED Panel and a 240Hz display is an extraordinarily powerful solution for Livestreaming.

Attend our secure audio/video conference call where we review our design of Hybrid5G infrastructure and discuss all the Smart Cities development issues. Join our secure free Livestream daily at the link below as we support up to 12 attendees for training at:

https://appear.in/hybrid5g

We are online every day of the week for an hour or two beginning 10 AM EST in January and February. If you have any questions about Hybrid5G Infrastructure or Smart Cities and IoT feel free to hit us up and drop in the above site at your earliest convenience.


Growth of cellular mobile subscriptions continues unabated

How many will support 5G?

First sight of a 5G Smartphone


Samsung had a 5G smartphone prototype on display at CES and almost nobody noticed it!!



samsung 5g prototype phone ces 2019 2



  • Samsung had a 5G smartphone prototype on display at CES 2019.
  • It's the closest official look we have to future smartphones from Samsung that come with 5G compatibility.
  • A variant of Samsung's upcoming Galaxy S10 is said to come with 5G support.
Strolling innocently through Samsung's massive booth at CES 2019 in Las Vegas, I stumbled upon Samsung's 5G prototype smartphone.
There it was, a 5G smartphone prototype from the biggest mobile company in the world, with no fanfare or much interest from any other CES attendee around me. I almost started to believe that only I could see it.
To be clear, the prototype I saw was, indeed, just a prototype. It was the smartphone used to show off 5G capabilities when Verizon and Samsung announced earlier in December that a 5G phone will be coming in early 2019 during a Qualcomm event in Hawaii. I'd doubt that Samsung would brazenly display this device if it had any similarities to the upcoming Galaxy S10, of which one model is rumored to support 5G connectivity.
Still, it's the closest thing we've seen to an official 5G smartphone from Samsung at the moment.
Check out Samsung's 5G prototype smartphone:

There it is, casually hanging out at the far end of Samsung's 5G hardware display. You can barely see it.


There it is, casually hanging out at the far end of Samsung's 5G hardware display. You can barely see it.

Here's a closer look at the prototype of Samsung's vision of a 5G smartphone. If you were expecting 5G phones to look different, you could be set up for disappointment.


Here's a closer look of the prototype of Samsung's vision of a 5G smartphone. If you were expecting 5G phones to look different, you could be set up for disappointment.

It looked like a perfectly operational unit with a working display, volume buttons, a power button, and even a Bixby button. It even had a case.


It looked like a perfectly operational unit with a working display, volume buttons, a power button, and even a Bixby button. It even had a case.
The phone's screen cycled through a canned demo that showcased some of the device's features and functions. None of the demos appeared to make use of wireless capabilities, however, so it didn't provide much insight into what the super-fast 5G wireless data experience will actually be like.

It's hard to tell from the photo, but the prototype had a notch on the top right corner.


It's hard to tell from the photo, but the prototype had a notch on the top right corner.
Samsung's upcoming Galaxy S10 is said to have had a hole-punch cutout on the top right of the display. The prototype's corner notch isn't the same thing, but it does show that Samsung is at least experimenting with moving selfie cameras and sensors to a different location away from the top centre of its phones.

Caged in its glass enclosure, Samsung's prototype is still a mystery and doesn't reveal that much about the company's future phones.


Caged in its glass enclosure, Samsung's prototype is still a mystery and doesn't reveal that much about the company's future phones.
All we can assume about a 5G smartphone from Samsung is that it'll include the 5G-compatible model of Qualcomm's Snapdragon 855 mobile chip. What kind of speeds and performance we can realistically expect from mobile 5G vary greatly. It's generally expected that mobile 5G networks will be significantly faster than the current 4G LTE networks we currently use to stream data on our smartphones today.
We'll have to wait and see for a true 5G smartphone connected to a 5G mobile network to find out just how much better 5G will be than what we have now.