Wednesday, 19 July 2017
Major industry players race to be the first ones to debut pre-standard versions of 5G, the current emphasis is on the millimetre-wave spectrum.
The idea is to have 5G NR (typically millimetre wave) infrastructure provide additional capacity in hot spots or hot zones within LTE networks, seamlessly supplementing the LTE coverage.
In the 3GPP, the stakeholders are working on defining the 5G radio access technology, which is called simply the New Radio (NR). Structurally, it builds on the groundwork laid by LTE. The radio is based on OFDM technology just like LTE. The fundamental numerology is still based on LTE’s 15 kHz subcarrier spacing and the same basic time unit of 32 53/96 nanoseconds derived from it: additional options (30 kHz and 60 kHz to begin with, with other figures up to 480 kHz for future consideration) are available for subcarrier spacing, and they are all 2X times 15 kHz. The frame and sub-frame durations are still 10 ms and 1 ms respectively.
In fact, it may not be wrong to say that for someone trying to understand the radio technology, 5G will be closer to 4G than 4G was to 3G, 3G was to 2G, and 2G was to 1G: the main difference will be in the scale. In 5G NR, several concepts that were developed in and for 4G LTE will be taken forward.
Monday, 17 July 2017
Network operators will spend more than $2 billion on 5G backhaul by 2022, according to Communications Industry Researchers (CIR).
Nearly 60% of this money will go toward fibre-optic network deployments, the market research firm states in "Optical Networking Opportunities in 5G Wireless Networks: 2017-2026."
The "backhaul" figures include "fronthaul" and "midhaul" as well as classic backhaul, a source at CIR confirmed. Taken together in this way, operators in the United States will make more than half of the 5G backhaul networking investments over the next decade, according to CIR.
However, China and South Korea will offer the fastest-growing opportunities for those who hope to support 5G mobile backhaul requirements. CIR expects Chinese service providers will spend more than $130 million on 5G backhaul in 2022, while Korea will step up spending to support the 2018 Winter Olympics.
Among optical network technologies, NG-PON2 will emerge as the go-to fibre optic network architecture for 5G backhaul in CIR's estimation.
The market research firm points to Verizon's near-term NG-PON2 deployment plans as well as Huawei's support of the technology as indications of its market positioning.
However, CIR points out that the technology will have to meet cost expectations if it is to fulfill its promise as "NG-PON2 tunable transceiver work shows signs of progress".
Technology suppliers will experiment with both DFB and DBR lasers in the tunable transceivers NG-PON2 systems will require, CIR predicts.
Other new technologies that will receive scrutiny include new kinds of optical splitters and fibre designed to support space-division multiplexing (SDM) deployment, the market research firm believes.
So speaking of fibre, fibre-optic cable vendors are predicted to ship more than 280,000 fibre km of fibre cable in 2022 to support 5G backhaul.
Optical Networking Opportunities in 5G Wireless Networks: 2017-2026 report studies and discusses emerging opportunities for optical networking companies in the 5G backhaul sector, especially those in the Carrier Ethernet, WDM, SDM, and PON sectors among all of the major geographic markets.
The report provides 10-year forecasts for these areas, with volume and value projections of optical systems, modules, and the cable requirements for each. The report also forecasts niche opportunities for free-space optics and millimetre wave radio for 5G backhaul, as well as quantifies the potential role of dark fibre.